This systematic review collates, examines and syntheses condom use interventions for middle-aged and older adults. Associations between effectiveness and theoretical basis, behaviour change techniques, mode of delivery and treatment fidelity were explored. Five interventions were included; one was effective. Compared to interventions with non-significant findings, the effective telephone-administered intervention used theory to a greater extent, had a higher number of behaviour change techniques and employed more treatment fidelity strategies. There is a need to develop theory-based interventions targeting condom use among this population and evaluate these in randomised controlled trials that are rigorously designed and reported. Health psychologists have a key role in this endeavour.